Τρίτη, 6 Οκτωβρίου 2009

Η Γενοκτονία (το ψήφισμα της Διεθνούς Ένωσης Ακαδημαικών για τη Μελέτη των Γενοκτοκιών) The HELLENIC GENOCIDE. (The resolution of IAGS).


Η Γενοκτονία (το ψήφισμα της Διεθνούς Ένωσης Ακαδημαικών για τη Μελέτη των Γενοκτοκιών) στα ελληνικά, αγγλικά και γερμανικά.

The HELLENIC GENOCIDE. (The resolution of International Association of Genocide Scholars). In Greek, English and German

Η Διεθνής Ένωση Ακαδημαϊκών για τη Μελέτη των Γενοκτονιών
αναγνωρίζει με ψήφισμά της τη Γενοκτονία των Ασσυρίων και των Ελλήνων.
Είναι πραγματικά ξεχωριστή στιγμή για την παγκόσμια ακαδημαϊκή, επιστημονική και ερευνητική κοινότητα, το ψήφισμα αναγνώρισης της Γενοκτονίας των Ασσυρίων και των Ελλήνων στο διάστημα 1914-1923, ψήφισμα στο οποίο κατέληξε μετά από ψηφοφορία μεταξύ των μελών της, η Διεθνής Ένωση Ακαδημαϊκών για τη Μελέτη των Γενοκτονιών (International Association of Genocide Scholars -IAGS).
Το ψήφισμα δηλώνει ότι «η άρνηση της γενοκτονίας αναγνωρίζεται ευρέως ως τελικό στάδιο της γενοκτονίας, που φυλάσσει την ατιμωρησία για τους δράστες της γενοκτονίας, και προετοιμάζει το έδαφος για τις μελλοντικές γενοκτονίες».

Την εκτενή ενισχυτική τεκμηρίωση για τις γενοκτονίες των Ασσυρίων και των Ελλήνων κυκλοφόρησαν στα μέλη IAGS στους μήνες πριν από την ψηφοφορία, και είναι διαθέσιμη στον ιστοχώρο http://www.genocidetext.net/ iags_resolution_ supportingdocumentation.htm.
Το ψήφισμα το οποίο έλαβε το 83% των ψήφων, αναφέρεται στις πρακτικές του οθωμανικού κράτους ενάντια στις χριστιανικές μειονότητες, Αρμενίων, Ασσυρίων (Χαλδαίων, Νεστοριανών, Σύριοι, Αραμαίοι, Ιακωβίτες, Ορθόδοξοι Σύριοι), Ελλήνων (Ποντίων, Θρακών, Ιώνων), που οδήγησαν στη γενοκτονία εναντίον τους. Το 1997 η Διεθνής Ένωση Ακαδημαϊκών για τη Μελέτη των Γενοκτονιών αναγνώρισε την γενοκτονία των Αρμενίων και η μέχρι τώρα δραστηριότητα των μελών της Ένωσης, έδειξε ότι υπήρξαν και άλλες γενοκτονίες από το ίδιο καθεστώς.

Οι Ασσύριοι, οι Έλληνες αντιμετώπισαν τις ίδιες μεθόδους εξόντωσής τους, όπως μαζικές εκτελέσεις, πορείες θανάτου, και λιμός. Το μέλος της Διεθνούς Ένωσης Ακαδημαϊκών για τη Μελέτη των Γενοκτονιών καθηγητής του πανεπιστημίου του Γεηλ Adam Jones σύνταξε το ψήφισμα και με πρωταγωνίστρια την Thea Halo, συγγραφέως του βιβλίου «Ούτε το όνομά μου», και σε συνεργασία με επιστήμονες από όλον τον κόσμο, το ψήφισμα έγινε δεκτό, καλώντας ταυτόχρονα την Τουρκία να αναγνωρίσει τις γενοκτονίες που διέπραξε.
Η συντριπτική υποστήριξη που δόθηκε στο ψήφισμα από την κορυφαία στον κόσμο οργάνωση μελέτης των γενοκτονιών, θα βοηθήσει στην ανάπτυξη της παγκόσμιας συνείδησης για τις γενοκτονίες των Ασσυρίων και των Ελλήνων και θα ενεργήσει επίσης ως ισχυρός αντίθετα προς εκείνους, ειδικά στη σημερινή Τουρκία, η οποία αγνοεί ακόμη ή αρνείται εντελώς τις γενοκτονίες των οθωμανικών χριστιανικών μειονοτήτων.

Ο Φάνης Μαλκίδης διδάσκει στο Δημοκρίτειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θράκης και είναι μέλος της Διεθνούς Ένωσης Ακαδημαϊκών για τη Μελέτη των Γενοκτονιών.

ΤΟ ΠΛΗΡΕΣ ΚΕΙΜΕΝΟ ΤΟΥ ΨΗΦΙΣΜΑΤΟΣ ΤΗΣ IAGS:
ΕΚΤΙΜΩΝΤΑΣ ΌΤΙ η άρνηση της γενοκτονίας αναγνωρίζεται ευρέως ως τελικό στάδιο της γενοκτονίας, που φυλάσσει την ατιμωρησία για τους δράστες της γενοκτονίας, και προετοιμάζει το έδαφος για τις μελλοντικές γενοκτονίες
ΕΚΤΙΜΩΝΤΑΣ ΌΤΙ η γενοκτονία ενάντια στους χριστιανικούς πληθυσμούς από το οθωμανικό κράτος κατά τη διάρκεια και μετά από του πρώτου παγκόσμιου πολέμου απεικονίζεται συνήθως ως γενοκτονία ενάντια σε Αρμενίους μόνο, με μερική μονο αναγνώριση των ποιοτικά παρόμοιων γενοκτονιών ενάντια σε άλλες χριστιανικές μειονότητες της οθωμανικής αυτοκρατορίας
ΕΙΝΑΙ πεποίθηση της Διεθνούς Ένωσης Ακαδημαϊκών για τη Μελέτη των Γενοκτονιών ότι η οθωμανική εκστρατεία ενάντια στις χριστιανικές μειονότητες της αυτοκρατορίας μεταξύ 1914 και 1923 αποτέλεσε μια γενοκτονία ενάντια σε Αρμένιους, Ασσύριους και Έλληνες.
Η Διεθνής Ένωση Ακαδημαϊκών για τη Μελέτη των Γενοκτονιών ζητά από την κυβέρνηση της Τουρκίας για να αναγνωρίσει τις γενοκτονίες ενάντια σε αυτούς τους πληθυσμούς, για να εκδώσει μια επίσημη συγγνώμη, και για να λάβει τα γρήγορα και σημαντικά μέτρα προς την αποκατάσταση.


The following resolution has been proposed by Adam Jones and Thea Halo for
vote at the IAGS Biennial Business Meeting on July 12, 2007 in Sarajevo. It
has been approved by the IAGS Resolutions Committee, Peter Balakian, Chair;
Greg Stanton, Elihu Richter.

PROPOSED RESOLUTION - IAGS 2007

WHEREAS the denial of genocide is widely recognized as the final stage of
genocide, enshrining impunity for the perpetrators of genocide, and
demonstrably paving the way for future genocides;

WHEREAS the Ottoman genocide against minority populations during and
following the First World War is usually depicted as a genocide against
Armenians alone, with little recognition of the qualitatively similar
genocides against
other Christian minorities of the Ottoman Empire;

BE IT RESOLVED that it is the conviction of the International Association of
Genocide Scholars that the Ottoman campaign against Christian
minorities of the Empire between 1914 and 1923 constituted a genocide
against Armenians, Assyrians, and Pontian and Anatolian Greeks.

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Association calls upon the government
of Turkey to acknowledge the genocides against these populations, to
issue a formal apology, and to take prompt and meaningful steps toward
restitution.

Supporting materials:

Notes on the Genocides of Christian Populations of the Ottoman Empire
Submitted in support of a resolution recognizing the Armenian, Assyrian, and
Pontic and Anatolian Greek genocides of 1914-23, to be presented at the
conference of the International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS),
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, July 2007.



____________________________________
Wikipedia Sources
All these entries feature numerous scholarly citations and references from
contemporary news accounts.
_The Armenian Genocide_ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenian_Genocide)
_The Assyrian Genocide_ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assyrian_Genocide)
_The Pontic Greek Genocide_
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontic_Greek_Genocide)

____________________________________
Ottoman Genocide against Christian Minorities: General Comments and Sources
"It is believed that in Turkey between 1913 and 1922, under the successive
regimes of the Young Turks and of Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk), more than 3.5
million Armenian, Assyrian and Greek Christians were massacred in a state-organized
and state-sponsored campaign of destruction and genocide, aiming at wiping
out from the emerging Turkish Republic its native Christian populations. This
Christian Holocaust is viewed as the precursor to the Jewish Holocaust in
WWII. To this day, the Turkish government ostensibly denies having committed
this genocide."

- Prof. Israel Charney, President of the IAGS
"Turks admit that the Armenian persecution is the first step in a plan to get
rid of Christians, and that Greeks would come next. ... Turkey henceforth is
to be for Turks alone."

- Peter Balakian, The Burning Tigris, quoting the New York Times, September
14, 1915.
"While the death toll in the trenches of Western Europe were close to 2
million by the summer of 1915, the extermination of innocent civilians in Turkey
(the Armenians, but also Syrian and Assyrian Christians and large portions of
the Greek population, especially the Greeks of Pontos, or Black Sea region)
was reaching 1 million."

- Peter Balakian, The Burning Tigris, p. 285-286.
In a front page article written by Mustafa Kemal himself, for the August 1,
1926 edition of the Los Angeles Examiner, Kemal also affirms the slaughters.
Kemal writes:
"those ... left-over from the former Young Turkish Party, ... should have
been made to account for the lives of millions of our Christian subjects who
were ruthlessly driven en masse, from their homes and massacred ..."

- Mustafa Kemal Pasha, "Kemal Promises More Hangings of Political
Antagonists in Turkey," Los Angeles Examiner, August 1, 1926. p. 1.
"If members of the United Nations pass appropriate legislation such incidents
such as pogroms of Czarist Russian and the massacres of Armenians and Greeks
by Turkey would be punishable as genocide."

- "Genocide Under the Law of Nations," New York Times, January 5, 1947.
Contemporary newspaper commentary
THE CALVARY OF A NATION: A PERSONAL NARRATIVE
"The extermination of the Armenians is well under way. Thousands of
Nestorians and Syrians [of the Assyrian Orthodox Church] have vanished from the face
of the earth. More than 300,000 Greeks have been deported from the Ottoman
Empire, and many more sent to the interior. The fate that awaits the surviving
Christians and Jews -- in fact, of all the non-Turkish elements -- depends on
the term of the fratricidal war and its fortunes. The Young Turks are
watchfully waiting to carry out their program: 'Turkey for the Turks.'"

Atlantic Monthly, November 1916

____________________________________
The Assyrian Genocide
Hannibal Travis, "'Native Christians Massacred': The Ottoman Genocide of the
Assyrians during World War I," Genocide Studies and Prevention, 1: 3 (2006),
pp. 327-371.
Abstract: "The Ottoman Empire's widespread persecution of Assyrian civilians
during World War I constituted a form of genocide, the present-day term for
an attempt to destroy a national, ethnic, or religious group, in whole or in
part. Ottoman soldiers and their Kurdish and Persian militia partners
subjected hundreds of thousands of Assyrians to a deliberate and systematic campaign
of massacre, torture, abduction, deportation, impoverishment, and cultural
and ethnic destruction. Established principles of international law outlawed
this war of extermination against Ottoman Christian civilians before it was
embarked upon, and ample evidence of genocidal intent has surfaced in the form
of admissions by Ottoman officials. Nevertheless, the international community
has been hesitant to recognize the Assyrian experience as a form of
genocide. The Assyrian genocide is indistinguishable in principle from its Armenian
counterpart, however, and its recognition by scholars and the international
community may assist in the resettlement and relief of the Assyrian remnant,
currently fleeing by the thousands from its homelands in Iraq."
Note: Travis's article contains 305 footnotes, providing a rich buttress of
primary and secondary sources for the Assyrian genocide. Among the most
important are:
Sébastian de Courtois, The Forgotten Genocide: The Eastern Christians, the
Last Arameans. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2004.
Eugene Griselle, Syriens et Chaldéens: Leur Martyre, Leurs Espérances.
Paris: Bloud et Gay, 1918.
Yusuf Malek, The British Betrayal of the Assyrians. Warren Point, NJ:
Kimball Press, 1936.
Mordechai Nisan, Minorities in the Middle East: A History of Struggle and
Self-Expression. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 1991.
Yonan H. Shahbaz, The Rage of Islam: An Account of the Massacre of
Christians by the Turks in Persia. Philadelphia, PA: Roger Williams Press, 1918.
Abraham Yohannan, The Death of a Nation, or: The Ever Persecuted Nestorians
or Assyrian Christians. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1916.
Gabriele Yonan, Ein vergassener Holocaust: Die Vernichtung der christlichen
Assyrer in der Turkei. Gottingen: Gesellschaft fur bedrohte Volker, 1989.
David Gaunt, Massacres, Resistance, Protectors: Muslim-Christian Relations
in Eastern Anatolia during World War I (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2006)
- "The history of this region is not a matter of general knowledge, so it is
necessary to paint a broad background to the wartime activities of 'ethnic
cleansing' and genocide, which will be described in considerable detail further
on. By the 1920s, the multidenominational Christian populations of the
region were radically depleted and almost entirely displaced from their historic
settlemetns. Represerntatives of the remnants of these groups insist that they
were the victims of a genocide planned and carried out by the wartime
leadership of the Ottoman Empire. The Assyrian, Chaldean, and Syriac groups have
proposed the term 'Sayfo,' meaning 'year of the sword,' as a name for this
catastrophe. In many countries, parliamentary bills have been considered which
would brand Sayfo as an act of genocide of the same rank and slightly better
known case of the Armenian genocide." (p. 1)
- "It is possible that the Ottoman deportations [during World War I] were
planned to be brutal but not fatal, to be limited and not global; to target only
Armenians and not the other Christians. But designs and reality are separate
phenomena. There were three separate phaess of forced migration during the
war era. The first was the slow-paced exchange of minority populations begun
by Talaat as Minister of the Interior before the war. The second was the
'military necessity' banishments of Armenian men started by Enver early in 1915
and carried out by the army. The third was the total removal of entire
Christian populations in the summer of 1915 on the order of Talaat and organized byt
he local civil administrations together with death squads of local
militamen." (p. 65)
- "Through various compilations there is written evidence of massacres and
attacks against Christians in 178 small towns and villages in Diyarbekir
province and its nearest neighboring regions [in 1915]" (p. 76). "Despite the
official declarations excluding them from the 'deportations,' non-Armenian
Christians kept on being the object of mass murder" (p. 77).
- "On March 10, 1915, the Russian consult, Pavel Vvedenski, became the first
civilian official to inspect a horrifying atrocity in an out-of-the-way spot
on the plain of Salmas, near several small iranian towns. This was the
village of Haftevan, between Khosrowa, the center of the Chaldean Catholic
minority, and Dilman, an Armenian town. This was the first consciosuly planned mass
execution of civilians committed by the Ottoman army in its Caucasus
campaigns, the first of many. Before his eyes were the remains fo the adult Christian
male population of an entire district. Vvedenski found hundreds of corpses
lying exposed everywhere. All of the bodies were mutilated and, as far as he
could see, most had been decapitated. ... The vice-commander of Russia's First
Caucasus Army, K. Matikyan, counted the corpses and came up with a total of
707 Armenians and Syriacs (or Aisori as he called them) who had been murdered
by Ottoman soldiers and Kurdish volunteers ..." (p. 81).
- Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs files formal protest, March 5, 1915,
referring to "violence [that] is most noted int he areas where there are many
villages inhabited by Christians, where the population has been violated and
mercilessly massacred." (P. 82)
- "The Assyrian tribes were the prime target among all the Syriac groups in
the Ottoman Empire, and the CUP spoke of them with the same degree of
suspicion as they did the Armenians. The ethnic cleansing of [the] Hakkiri
[mountains] was a consequence of a series of government decrees, some of which predated
the war. The eradication of the autonomous Assyrian tribes had been a
favorite idea of Talaat Pasha, the Minister of the Interior, because they made up
an almost solid non-Muslim eagle's nest on an important border. When war
became imminent, ethnic cleansing began on a small scale and then spiraled after a
few months to a full-scale operation. Talaat made the final decision at the
moment it was clear that the Assyrian tribes were being defeated. He wrote to
the valis of Mosul and Van accusing the Nestorians of cooperating with the
Armenians and Russians. He proposed: 'We should not let them return to their
homelands.'" (P. 121) "Here is the story behind their exodus, which also
amounted to one of the most complete cases of ethnic cleansing. This is a tale of
government plans for deportation, harassment, and massacres by local Kurdish
chiefs -- all leading up to a full war between the well-armed Ottoman army
and the traditioanl Assyrian tribal warriors. ... The documentation is sparse,
consisting of news of massacres, executions, attacks, invasions, and
retreats, without much clarification. ... The massacres in the sanjak capital Baskale
were so many that it gives the impression of containing a combined
concentration and death camp where refugees were held captive until their execution.
However, no one managed to escape from Bashkale, and thus we lack information
about what went on inside the town ..." (P. 122)
- "Ceaseless ethnic cleansing by means of ruthless attacks and panic plagued
the Turkish-Iranian border strip. As soon as the Russians left a village or
town undefended, Kurdish irregulars or volunteers moved back in and punished
the population for alleged collaboration." (P. 135)
- "Reshid [Bey] amassed great riches, as did many other local administrators
and politicians [during the genocide]. They held the cities of Diyarbekir and
Mardin ina state of terror during the summer and autumn of 1915. It was
reported at the end of August that 120,000 'Armenians' had been deported from the
province and there were none left. The majority of the deportees were dead;
the victims included Christians of all denominations." (P. 152) "... Talat
sent a general order for the deportation of the Armenians on June 21 ... In
fact, by the time the order arrived, mass extermination of Christians of all
faiths had been going on for several weeks throughout the length and breadth of
the province ..." (P. 153).
- "Jacques Rhetore estimated that 200,000 Christians were killed within the
province of Diyarbekir. Of that number, 144,185 (amounting to 82 percent of
the Christian population) were native residents and about 55,000 were outsiders
who had been killed when their deportation caravans were attacked. Victims
came from all faiths, and the largest groups were from the Syriac Orthodox
Church with 60,725 deaths and the Gregorian Armenians with 58,000 deaths." (P.
177)
- "There are also some further traits that were systematic. There was the
similarity in urban areas of the multistep pattern of shattering the Christian
population. Also, the creation of conflicts between the denominations in order
to discourage solidarity and united defense. Step one, the arrest and
interrogation under torture of the male notables, including religious leaders.
Step two, the killing of the notables about one week later. Step three, the
deportation and killing of the remaining adult males. Step four, the formation of
columns of women and children who were told that they were being sent to join
their male relatives and marched out of the towns. Throughout, the
Christians were extorted of their wealth. ..." (P. 178)
- Refers to "the anti-Christian genocide": "... By early 1915, systematic,
government-sanctioned ethno-religious hostility gradually assumed a structured
form. This planning concerned the targeting of certain ethnic and religious
groups, the dates at which specific areas would be evacuated, and whether
certain non-Muslim groups would be temporarily excluded and for how long. The
exact manner in which deportations and massacres would be carried out was the
object of little high-level planning and was left to local initiative. ... It
has been claimed that deportations took place in humane and secure conditions,
but the lived experience of Christians in Diyarbekir province, as well as
Hakkari and Sa'irt sanjaks, gives absolutely no support to that interpretation.
In this region, ethnic cleansing, wholesale massacres, mass rape, and
attacks on outnumbered villages were a daily occurrence throughout June, July, and
August 1915. Tens of thousands of deportees from other provinces were
slaughtered along the roads of Diyarbekir and the banks of the Tigris River as a
matter of course. Perpetrators and instigators ranged from government officials,
army officers, and local politicians to tribal aghas, brigands, local
riff-raff, and released convicts. Only in the very final months of the
anti-Christian policy (from September 1915) is there solid evidence that deported
Christians from Diyarbekir province actually began to arrive at their stated
destinations." (Pp. 296-97)
- "The Assyrian, Chaldean, and Syriac victims were easy to single out because
they belonged to a non-Muslim group and spoke non-Turkic languages. They
were thus targeted for violent ethnic cleansing as religious and ethnic groups,
but not as racial groups. Thus the reason for their extermination should be
sought against the background of their religious and ethnic deviation from the
political standards held by the ideologues in power." (Pp. 303-04)
- "The degree of extermination and the brutality of the massacres indicate
extreme pent-up hatred on the popular level. Christians, the so-called gawar
infidels, were being killed in almost all sorts of situations. They were
collected at the local town hall, walking in the streets, fleeing on the roads, at
harvest, in the villages, in the caves and tunnels, in the caravanserais, in
the prisons, under torture, on the river rafts, on road repair gangs, on the
way to be put on trial. There was no specific and technological way of
carrying out the murders like the Nazis' extermiantion camps. A common feature was
that those killed were unarmed, tied up, or otherwise defenseless. All
possible means of killing were used: shooting, stabbing, stoning, crushing, throat
cutting, throwing off of roofs, drowning, decapitation. Witnesses talk of
seeing collections of ears and noses and of brigands boasting of their
collections of female body parts." (P. 304)
- "The intense extermination of the Christians was completed in a short
period between June and September 1915. Throughout the southeast Anatolian
provinces, bodies of the victims lay strewn everywhere: along the highways, outside
the city gates, on hills outside town, in caves, in ravines, in wells and
cisterns, in latrines, floating on the lakes and rivers. No traveler could miss
them. In 1919, after the war, Edward Noel, the British political foficer,
observed corpses still rotting along the roads and noted that all the male
corpses were on their stomachs but the corpses of women were lying face up on
their backs. It was as if an incurable plague of hundreds of Jedwabnes and
Srebrenicas afflicted the region." (P. 305)
- "This book has told a story of ethnic wars, innumerable retributions of
suspected collaborators, and astounding genocidal projects throughout
southeastern Anatolia. What happened was indeed the feared 'general massacre' that the
German diplomats in July 1915 warned the regime in Istanbul was imminent
unless it lessened the brutality of the forced deportations and the Diyarbekir
massacres. this term, 'general massacre,' along with others like
'extermination' and 'annihilation,' was as close as the German diplomats at that time
could come to formulating the modern concept 'genocide,' as defined by the United
Nations in 1948. The Vatican expressed its fear for 'the threatening
destruction of en [sic] entire people,' to which the Sultan replied on November 19,
1915, acknowledging the deaths of innocent people and explaining that it had
unfortunately proved impossible to separate the 'peaceful elements from those
in rebellion.' Already on May 24, 1915, at the very beginning of persecution,
the Entente powers labeled them 'crimes against humanity and civilization.'"
(P. 315)
- From testimony of Major E. Noel, "on Special Duty in Kurdistan (1919)":
"... Even if Armenian treason could be proved to the hilt, there could scarcely
be any contention, even on the part of the Turks, that the other Christian
communities, Jacobite, Chaldean and Syrian, were parties thereto.
"The people were not long left in doubt as to whom the word 'traitor'
referred to. Orders were received from Constantinople to disarm any Christian
soldiers and gendarmes. Officers were told to dismiss their Christian servants and
in future to allow no Christian to have any access to them. In January 1915
all Christians were dismissed from Government employ. In February and March,
Turkish officials, including even deputies, visited the tribes under the guise
of purchasing transport animals, and openly preached the doctrine of death
to the infidel. ... Openly the policy adopted was to: 1. Deport suspects. 2..
Put to forced labour anybody found in possession of arms. 3. Put to death
anybody convicted of treason. In practice, however, the secret procedure laid
down was to arrange for the massacre of all three of the above classes ..." (Pp.
441-42) "The outstanding feature, which is free from all element of
conjecture, is that the massacres were scientifically organized from Constantinople,
and the local ignorant Muslim was only used as a tool. It is not he who
should be punished but the Turk in high places, and again the local Turk who acted
as his willing agent, and who filled his pockets in the process." (P. 443)
Other sources
"In 1915 the killing resumed with a full-scale, government-sponsored genocide
of the Armenians and the Assyrians. At Sairt in June 1915, the massacres of
Assyrians by 'The Butchers' Battalion,' a term the military Turkish governor
of Van, Djeudet Bey chose for himself and his 8,000 soldiers, left at least
17,000 Assyrians dead. Sairt was only one of forty-one villages attacked that
year where the Assyrian inhabitants were slaughtered."

- Thea Halo, Not Even My Name, St. Martin's Press, New York 2000/2001.
Sources: American Committee for Armenian and Syrian [Assyrian] Relief. Armenia,
New York: Amer. Comm. for Armenian/Syrian Relief, 1917; and Armenian Refugees
(Lord Mayor's Fund), The Plight of Armenian and Assyrian Christians (London:
Spottiswoode, Ballantyne and Co., 1919). For further bibliographies see:
http://www.umd.umich.edu/dept/armenian/facts/gen_bib1.html.
Documentation on the treatment of Assyrians was compiled by Arnold Toynbee
and originally titled: Papers and Documents on the Treatment of Armenians and
Assyrian Christians by the Turks, 1915-1916, in the Ottoman Empire and
North-West Persia (London, 1916, Foreign Office Archives, 3 Class 96,
Miscellaneous, Series II, six files, FO 96*205-210). "And Assyrian" was removed from the
title by the British Secretary for Foreign Affairs, James Bryce, co-founder of
the English-Armenian Society, when the book was published in late 1916. The
French translation presented at the Paris Peace Conference in 1920 further
eliminated mention of the Assyrians by the removal of the 100 pages that
referred to them. The Assyrian genocide was also reported in the British
government's Blue Book and in numerous reports by missionaries and relief workers.
"[I will] relate the details of the tragic martyrdom of the Assyro-Chaldeans
from the Jezireh district on the Tigris [not far] from Midyat, where more
than fifty villages, whose names I know, villages for the most part fertile and
flourishing ...were completely sacked and ruined while the entire population
was put to the sword."

- Jean Naayem, Les Assyro-Chaldeans et les Armeniens Massacres Par les Turcs
(Paris: Sebastien de Courtois, 1920), p. 162.

____________________________________
The Greek Genocide
Henry Morgenthau, The Murder of a Nation
"The martyrdom of the Greeks, therefore, comprised two periods: that
antedating the war, and that which began in the early part of 1915. The first
affected chiefly the Greeks on the seacoast of Asia Minor. The second affected
those living in Thrace and in the territories surrounding the Sea of Marmora, the
Dardanelles, the Bosphorus, and the coast of the Black Sea. These latter, to
the extent of several hundred thousand, were sent to the interior of Asia
Minor. The Turks adopted almost identically the same procedure against the
Greeks as that which they had adopted against the Armenians. They began by
incorporating the Greeks into the Ottoman army and then transforming them into
labour battalions, using them to build roads in the Caucasus and other scenes of
action. These Greek soldiers, just like the Armenians, died by thousands from
cold, hunger, and other privations. The same house-to-house searches for
hidden weapons took place in the Greek villages, and Greek men and women were bea
ten and tortured just as were their fellow Armenians. The Greeks had to
submit to the same forced requisitions, which amounted in their case, as in the
case of the Armenians, merely to plundering on a wholesale scale. The Turks
attempted to force the Greek subjects to become Mohammedans; Greek girls, just
like Armenian girls, were stolen and taken to Turkish harems and Greek boys
were kidnapped and placed in Moslem households. The Greeks, just like the
Armenians, were accused of disloyalty to the Ottoman Government; the Turks accused
them of furnishing supplies to the English submarines in the Marmora and
also of acting as spies. The Turks also declared that the Greeks were not loyal
to the Ottoman Government, and that they also looked forward to the day when
the Greeks inside of Turkey would become part of Greece. These latter charges
were unquestionably true; that the Greeks, after suffering for five
centuries the most unspeakable outrages at the hands of the Turks, should look
longingly to the day when their territory should be part of the fatherland, was to
be expected. The Turks, as in the case of the Armenians, seized upon this as
an excuse for a violent onslaught on the whole race. Everywhere the Greeks
were gathered in groups and, under the so-called protection of Turkish
gendarmes, they were transported, the larger part on foot, into the interior. Just
how many were scattered in this fashion is not definitely known, the estimates
varying anywhere from 200,000 up to 1,000,000. These caravans suffered great
privations, but they were not submitted to general massacre as were the
Armenians, and this is probably the reason why the outside world has not heard so
much about them. The Turks showed them this greater consideration not from
any motive of pity. The Greeks, unlike the Armenians, had a government which
was vitally interested in their welfare. At this time there was a general
apprehension among the Teutonic Allies that Greece would enter the war on the side
of the Entente, and a wholesale massacre of Greeks in Asia Minor would
unquestionably have produced such a state of mind in Greece that its pro-German
king would have been unable longer to keep his country out of the war. It was
only a matter of state policy, therefore, that saved these Greek subjects of
Turkey from all the horrors that befell the Armenians. But their sufferings
are still terrible, and constitute another chapter in the long story of crimes
for which civilization will hold the Turk responsible.

Amb. Henry Morgenthau, Sr. "The Murder of a Nation," ch. XXIV, in
Morgenthau, Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, 1919 (written in 1918, before Greece entered
the war on the side of the Allies in 1917, therefore before the further
massacres of Greeks between 1918 and 1923), pp. 52-53.
When "the civilized world did not protest against these deportations the
Turks afterward decided to apply the same methods on a larger scale not only to
the Greeks but to the Armenians, Syrians, Nestorians, and others of its
subject peoples."
"the Greeks were the first victims of this nationalizing idea ... in the few
months preceding the European War, the Ottoman Government began deporting its
Greek subjects along the coast of Asia Minor."
"The story which I have told about the Armenians I could also tell with
certain modifications about the Greeks and the Syrians."

Morgenthau, "The Murder of a Nation."
Contemporary commentary and official pronouncements
14 May 1914: Official document from Talaat Bey Minister of the Interior to
Prefect of Smyrna: "The Greeks, who are Ottoman subjects, and form the
majority of inhabitants in your district, take advantage of the circumstances in
order to provoke a revolutionary current, favourable to the intervention of the
Great Powers. Consequently, it is urgently necessary that the Greeks occupying
the coastline of Asia Minor be compelled to evacuate their villages and
install themselves in the vilayets of Erzerum and Chaldea. If they should refuse
to be transported to the appointed places, kindly give instructions to our
Moslem brothers, so that they shall induce the Greeks, through excesses of all
sorts, to leave their native places of their own accord. Do not forget to
obtain, in such cases, from the emigrants certificates stating that they leave
their homes on their own initiative, so that we shall not have political
complications ensuing from their displacement."
31 July 1915: German priest J. Lepsius: "The anti-Greek and anti-Armenian
persecutions are two phases of one -- the extermination of the Christian
element from Turkey."
16 July 1916: German Consul Kuchhoff from Amisos to Berlin: "The entire
Greek population of Sinope and the coastal region of the county of Kastanomu has
been exiled. Exile and extermination in Turkish are the same, for whoever is
not murdered, will die from hunger or illness."
30 November 1916: Austrian consul at Amisos Kwiatkowski to Austrian Foreign
Minister Baron Burian: "on 26 November Rafet Bey told me: 'we must finish off
the Greeks as we did with the Armenians ...' on 28 November Rafet Bey told
me: 'today I sent squads to the interior to kill every Greek on sight.' I fear
for the elimination of the entire Greek population and a repeat of what
occurred last year."
13 December 1916: German Ambassador Kuhlman to Chancellor Hollweg in Berlin:
"Consuls Bergfeld in Samsun and Schede in Kerasun report of displacement of
local population and murders. Prisoners are not kept. Villages reduced to
ashes. Greek refugee families consisting mostly of women and children being
marched from the coasts to Sebasteia. The need is great."
20 January 1917: Austrian Ambassador Pallavicini: "the situation for the
displaced is desperate. Death awaits them all. I spoke to the Grand Vizier and
told him that it would be sad if the persecution of the Greek element took the
same scope and dimension as the Armenia persecution."
31 January 1917: Austrian Chancellor Hollweg's report: "... the indications
are that the Turks plan to eliminate the Greek element as enemies of the
state, as they did earlier with the Armenians. The strategy implemented by the
Turks is of displacing people to the interior without taking measures for their
survival by exposing them to death, hunger, and illness. The abandoned homes
are then looted and burnt or destroyed. Whatever was done to the Armenians
is being repeated with the Greeks."

- Sources: Found in the archives of the Foreign Ministry of Greece, as
reported by Professor Kostas Fotiadis, professor of History at Aristotelian
University in Greece and compiled in a 14 volumes of documentation: Constantinos
Emm. Fotiadis, The Genocide of the Pontus Greeks by the Turks. Heodotus, Greece
(2004). See also http://www.greek-genocide.org/quotes.html#bkmk5
MASSACRES OF GREEKS IN TURKEY REPORTED
Hundreds Killed by Turks and Bulgars in Many Towns, London Hears


- New York Times, 20 April 1916
"Stories of cruelty and outrage in the expulsion of the inhabitants from the
villages -- features which it was impossible indeed should be lacking -- are
simply confirmed. A good many girls are in the hospitals at Aivali in
consequence of their treatment by the moharjis."

- Manchester Guardian, 29 June 1914
"The story of the Greek deportations is not yet generally known. Quietly and
gradually the same treatment is being meted out to the Greeks as to the
Armenians and Syrians [Assyrians]. Although closely guarded, certain echoes come
out from time to time. There were some two or three million Greeks in Asia
Minor at the outbreak of the war in 1914 subject to Turkish rule. According to
the latest reliable and authoritative accounts, some seven to eight hundred
thousand have been deported, mainly from the coast regions into the interior of
Asia Minor. At the declaration of the present war all persecutions were
stopped, but the spring of 1915 brought to the stage a tragic, novel drama,
unique in the history of the world as to its horrors and destructiveness -- that is
, the Armenian deportation; under that innocent name the extermination of a
Christian race was started. Along with the Armenians most of the Greeks of
the Marmora regions and Thrace have been deported on the pretext that they gave
information to the enemy. Along the Aegean coast, Aivalik stands out as the
worst sufferer. According to one report, some 70,000 Greeks have been
deported towards Konia and beyond. At least 7000 have been slaughtered. The Greek
Bishop of Aivalik committed suicide in despair."

- Frank W. Jackson, Chairman of the Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia
Minor, October 17, 1917
"Will the outrageous terrorising, the cruel torturing, the driving of women
into the harems, the debauchery of innocent girls, the sale of many of them at
eighty cents each, the murdering of hundreds of thousands and the
deportation to, and starvation in, the deserts of other hundreds of thousands, the
destruction of hundreds of villages and cities, will the wilful execution of
this whole devilish scheme to annihilate the Armenian, Greek and Syrian
Christians of Turkey -- will all this go unpunished?"

- Henry Morgenthau, "The Greatest Horror in History," Red Cross Magazine,
March 1918.
"Les persécutions antihelléniques poursuivies en Turquie depuis le début de
la guerre européenne ne sont que la continuation du plan d'extermination de
l'Hellénisme mis, depuis 1913, en pratique par les Jeunes-Turcs."
Translation:
"The anti-Greek persecutions carried out in Turkey since the beginning of
the European War are but the continuation of the plan of extermination of
Hellenism practiced by the Young Turks, since 1913."

- Bernard Grasset, Les Persécution Antihelléniques en Turquie Depuis le
Début de la Guerre Européenne. D'après les rapports officiels des agents
diplomatiques et consulaires (Paris, Librairie, 1918), Introduction.
"... the Greeks of Anatolia are suffering the same or worse fate than did the
Armenians in the massacres of the Great War. The deportation of the Greeks
is not limited to the Black Sea Coast but is being carried out throughout the
whole of the country governed by the Nationalists. Greek villages are
deported entire, the few Turkish or Armenian inhabitants are forced to leave, and
the villages are burned. The purpose is unquestionably to destroy all Greeks in
that territory and to leave Turkey for the Turks. These deportations are, of
course, accompanied by cruelties of every form just as was true in the case
of the Armenian deportations five and six years ago."

- Stanley Hopkins, American employee of the Near East Relief, 16/11/1921
Additional Sources
"In 1916, the Pontic Greeks along the Black Sea coast were again targeted.
Six thousand Pontian men, women, and children of the Bafra area were burned
alive as they took refuge in churches. In the town of Alajam another 2,500
Pontians were slaughtered. Of the 25,000 inhabitants of the Bafra region alone,
90 percent were eliminated by mass slayings or by sending them on long death
marches where they were often raped and robbed and left to die of disease and
starvation."

- Dr. Harry Psomiades, The Phantom Republic of Pontos and the Magali
Catastrophe (The Hellenic Studies Forum Inc. of Australia, 1992)
"A study of this question may be found in Publication No. 3, of the American
Hellenic Society, 1918, in which the statement is made that one million, five
hundred thousand Greeks were driven from their homes in Thrace and Asia
Minor, and that half these populations had perished from deportations, outrages
and famine.
"The violent and inflammatory articles in the Turkish newspapers, above
referred to, appeared unexpectedly and without any cause. They were so evidently
'inspired' by the authorities, that it seems a wonder that even ignorant Turks
did not understand this. Cheap lithographs were also got up, executed in the
clumsiest and most primitive manner-evidently local productions. They
represented Greeks cutting up Turkish babies or ripping open pregnant Moslem
women, and various purely imaginary scenes, founded on no actual events or even
accusations elsewhere made. These were hung in the mosques and schools. This
campaign bore immediate fruit and set the Turk to killing, a not very difficult
thing to do."

- George Horton, The Blight of Asia (1956)
April 5, 1922: The American Consul at Aleppo, Jesse B. Jackson, filed a
report from Dr. Mark H. Ward and Dr. F. D. Yowell, Director of the Near East
Relief unit at Harpoot. In it Ward and Yowell testify to the tens of thousands of
Greeks from the Black Sea region -- two-thirds of whom were women and
children -- being marched south, with medical attention, food and shelter denied to
them, causing many thousands to perish from 'starvation, exposure, typhus,
and dysentery.'
Yowell and Ward affirmed: "The policy of the Turks toward the Greeks who
were, and are still, being deported, through Sivas-Harpoot Diarbekr from the
Black Sea Coast and the Konia district, seems to be one of extermination."
Yowell, May 5, 1922: "Conditions of Greek minorities are even worse than
those of the Armenians. Sufferings of the Greeks deported from districts behind
the battlefront are terrible and still continue. These deportees begun to
reach Harpoot before my arrival last October. Of thirty thousand Greek refugees
who left Sivas, five thousand died on the way before reaching Harpoot. One
American relief worker saw and counted fifteen hundred bodies on the road east
of Harpoot.
"In Harpoot district our relief has been to give these needy people in
opposition to the wishes of the Turks who did everything in their power to prevent
our doing so. We were not allowed to employ any Greeks in our work or to
take any orphan children, left by dying Greek deportees, into our orphanages..
Sick Greeks could not be received into our hospital except on the written order
of the Turkish Commissioner.
"Two thirds of the Greek deportees are women and children. All along the
route where these deportees have travelled Turks are permitted to visit refugee
group and select women and girls whom they desire for any purpose. These
deportations are still in progress, and if American aid is now withdrawn all will
perish. Their whole route today strewn with bodies of their dead, which are
consumed by dogs, wolves, vultures. The Turks make no effort to bury these
dead and the deportees are not permitted to do so. The chief causes of death are
starvation, dysentery, typhus. Turkish authorities frankly state that is
their deliberate intention to exterminate the Greeks, and all their actions
supports this statements. At present fresh deportations and outrages are starting
in all parts of Asia Minor from northern seaports to the south eastern
district.”
Dr. Mark H. Ward, Medical missionary for the Near East Relief, July 6, 1922:
"From May, 1921, to March last, when I left, thirty thousand deportees, of
whom six thousand were Armenians and the rest Greeks, were collected at Sivas
and deported through Kharput to Bitlis and Van. Of these thirty thousand, ten
thousand perished last winter and ten thousand escaped or have been protected
by the Americans. The fate of the other ten thousand is not known. The
deportations are continuing; every week's delay means deaths to hundreds of these
poor people. The Turkish policy is extermination of these Christian
minorities."
Documentary Evidence that Turkish Officials Ordered the Atrocities.
Translated, it reads in part:
"To the Commandant of the Central Brigade: I call your attention to the
following: There is nothing but death for the Greeks, who are without honor. As
soon as the slightest sign is given you, destroy everything about you
immediately. As for the women, stop at nothing. Do not take either honor or
friendship into consideration when the moment of vengeance arrives!
- The Commandant of the Brigade, Mehmet Azit"

- Cited in Edward Hale Bierstadt, The Great Betrayal: A Survey of the Near
East Problem, New York, 1924.
"The Committee of Union and Progress made a clear decision. The source of the
problem in Western Anatolia would be removed, the Greeks would be cleared
out by means of political and economical measures. Before anything else, it
would be necessary to weaken and break the economically powerful Greeks."

- Nurdogan Taçlan, Ege'de Kurtulus Savasi Baslarken (Istanbul, 1970), p. 65.
Quoted in Taner Akçam, A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the
Question of Turkish Responsibility, translated by Paul Bessemer (New York:
Metropolitan Books, 2006), p. 103.
"The Turkish reprisals against the west Anatolian Greeks became general in
the spring of 1914. Entire Greek communities were driven from their homes by
terrorism, their homes and land and often their moveable property were seized,
and individuals were killed in the process."

- Arnold Toynbee, The Western Question in Greece and Turkey (Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 1922), p. 140.
Armenian/Pontian Joint Recognition
Armenian National Committee of America
1711 N Street NW
Washington, DC 20036
Tel. (202) 775-1918
Fax. (202) 775-5648
Email anca@anca.org
Internet www.anca.org
PRESS RELEASE
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
ANCA MARKS PONTIAN GREEK GENOCIDE REMEMBRANCE DAY
-- Joins with Assyrian and Greek Communities in Seeking Justice for Turkey's
Genocidal Crimes
May 19, 2007
WASHINGTON, DC - The Armenian National Committee of America (ANCA) joins with
Pontian Greeks -- and all Hellenes around the world -- in commemorating May
19th, the international day of remembrance for the genocide initiated by the
Ottoman Empire and continued by Kemalist Turkey against the historic Greek
population of Pontus along the southeastern coast of the Black Sea.
"We join with the Hellenic American community in solemn remembrance of the
Pontian Genocide, and in reaffirming our determination to work together with
all the victims of Turkey's atrocities to secure full recognition and justice
for these crimes," said Aram Hamparian, Executive Director of the ANCA.
The Ottoman Empire, under the cover of World War I, undertook a systematic
and deliberate effort to eliminate its minority Christian populations. This
genocidal campaign resulted in the death and deportation of well over 2,000,000
Armenians, Assyrians, and Greeks.
The Pontian Genocide has been formally acknowledged by Greece and Cyprus and,
within the United States, by the states of New York, New Jersey, Florida,
South Carolina, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Illinois, among others.
Bibliography of Books on the Pontic and Anatolian Greek Genocides
Taner Akcam, From Empire to Republic: Turkish Nationalism and the Armenian
Genocide. London: Zed Books, 2004, pp. 144-149.
George Andreadis, Tamama, The Missing Girl of Pontos. Athens: Gordios, 1993..

James Levi Barton, The Near East Relief, 1915-1930. New York: Russell Sage
Foundation, 1943.
Edward Hale Bierstadt, The Great Betrayal: A Survey of the Near East
Problem. New York: R. M. McBride & company, 1924.
Carl C. Compton, The Morning Cometh. New York: Karatzas Publisher, 1986.
Marjorie Housepian Dobkin, Smyrna 1922: The Destruction of a City. New York,
NY: Newmark Press, 1998.
Constantinos Fotiadis (ed.), The Genocide of the Pontus Greeks by the Turks..
13 vols. Herodotus, 2004.
Bernard Grasset, Les Persécution Antihelléniques en Turquie Depuis le Début
de la Guerre Européenne. D'après les rapports officiels des agents
diplomatiques et consulaires. Paris, Librairie, 1918.
Thea Halo, Not Even My Name. New York: Picador USA, 2000.
Hofmann, Tessa, ed., Verfolgung, Vertreibung und Vernichtung der Christen im
Osmanischen Reich 1912-1922. Münster: LIT, 2004. (pp. 177-221 on Pontian
Greeks)
George Horton, The Blight of Asia: An Account of the Systematic
Extermination of Christian Populations by Mohammedans and of the Culpability of Certain
Great Powers; With a True Story of the Burning of Smyrna. Indianopolis:
Bobbs-Merrill, 1926.
Ioannis Karayinnides, The Golgotha of Pontos. Salonica, 1978.
Johannes Lepsius, Archives du genocide des Armeniens. Paris: Fayard, 1986.
Bernard Lewis, The Making of Modern Turkey. London: Oxford University Press,
1961.
Manchester League of Unredeemed Hellenes, Turkey's Crimes: Hellenism in
Turkey. Manchester : Norbury, Natzio & Co., 1919.
J.A.R. Marriott, The Eastern Question: A Study in European Diplomacy.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940.
Manus I. Midlarsky, The Killing Trap. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
2005.
Henry Morgenthau, Sr., The Murder of a Nation. New York: Armenian General
Benevolent Union of America, 1974 (1918).
Henry Morgenthau, Sr., Ambassador's Morgenthau Story. Garden City, N.Y.:
Page & Company, 1918
Henry Morgenthau, Sr., I Was Sent to Athens. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday,
Doran & Co, 1929.
Henry Morgenthau, Sr., An International Drama. London: Jarrolds Ltd., 1930.
Jean De Murat. The Great Extirpation of Hellenism and Christianity in Asia
Minor: The Historic and Systematic Deception of World Opinion Concerning the
Hideous Christianity's Uprooting of 1922. Miami, Fla.: [s.n.], (Athens
[Greece]: A. Triantafillis) 1999.
Lysimachos Oeconomos, The Martyrdom of Smyrna and Eastern Christendom: A
File of Overwhelming Evidence, Denouncing the Misdeeds of the Turks in Asia
Minor and Showing Their Responsibility for the Horrors of Smyrna. London: G.
Allen & Unwin, 1922.
Alexander Papadopoulos, Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey before the
European War: On the Basis of Official Documents. New York: Oxford University
Press, 1919.
Ioannis Pavlides, Pages of History of Pontus and Asia Minor. Salonica,
Greece, 1980.
G.W. Rendel, "Memorandum by Mr. Rendel on Turkish Massacres and Persecutions
of Minorities since the Armistice." British Foreign Office Report, 1922. FO
371/7876. X/PO9194.
R. J. Rummel, Statistics of Democide, Chapter 5, "Statistics of Turkey's
Democide - Estimates, Calculations and Sources."
S.J. and E.K. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.
Michael Llewellyn Smith, Ionian Vision: Greece in Asia Minor, 1919-1922.
London: Allen Lane, 1973.
Dido Soteriou, Farewell Anatolia. Translated by Fred A. Reed. Athens:
Kedros, 1991.
Harry Tsirkinidis, At Last We Uprooted Them: The Genocide of Greeks of
Pontos, Thrace, and Asia Minor, through the French Archives. Thessaloniki:
Kyriakidis Bros, 1999.
C. Tsoukalas, The Greek Tragedy. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969.
Mark H. Ward, The Deportations in Asia Minor, 1921-1922. London:
Anglo-Hellenic League, 1922.

Please find a list of good books in English and French to add to Adam's
list followed by a long list of books in Greek, then followed by books
about the Assyrians. Please keep in mind that many other books include
details about the Assyrians but those mentioned here are more
specifically about their genocide.

Best to all,
Thea Halo

Good additional French and English books on the Genocide of Greeks

1. Oecumenical Patriarchate (Orthodox Eastern Church), Persecution of
the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918, Hesperia Press, London,1919.

2. L’extermination des Chretiens d’Orient: Faits, Documents et
Temoignages Anglais et Americain, Paris, 1922.

3. The Martyrdom of the Pontus and International public Opinion,
Hellenic League of Nations Union, Geneva, 1922. // Le Martyre du
Pont-Euxin et l’Opinion publique internationale, Ligue Hellenique pour
la Societe des Nations, Geneve, 1922.

4. Black Book: The Tragedy of Pontus 1914-1922, Edition of the Central
Council of Pontus, Athens, 1922. // Livre Noir: La Tragedie Du Pont
1914- 1922, Edition du Conseil Central du Pont, Athenes, 1922.

5. London Committee of Unredeemed Greeks, The anti-Hellenic
persecutions in Turkey: pictures of the atrocities committed against
the Greeks in Turkey during the early months of 1914, London Committee
of Unredeemed Greeks, London, 1919.

6. Les persecutions antihelleniques en Turquie depuis le debut de la
Guerre europeenne - D'apres les rapports officiels des agents
diplomatiques et consulaires, Grasset, 1918.

7. Oecumenical Patriarchate (Orthodox Eastern Church), The black book
of the sufferings of the Greek people in Turkey from the armistice to
the end of 1920, Patriarchate, Constantinople, 1920.

8. Les Atrocities Turques en Asia Mineure et dans le Pont, Athenes,
1922.

9. Les Atrocities Turques au Pont-Euxin, Dubois et Bauer, Paris, 1919.

10. Memorandum presented by the Greek members of the Turkish parliament
to the American Commission on Mandates over Turkey, American-Hellenic
Society, New York, 1919.

11. Oeconomos, Lysimachos, The Martyrdom of Smyrna and Eastern
Christendom, George Allen & Unwin, London, 1922.

12. Oeconomos, Lysimachos, The Tragedy of the Christian Near East, The
Anglo-Hellenic League, London, 1923.

13. Papadopoulos, Alexander, Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey
before the European War, Oxford University Press American Branch, New
York, 1919.

14. Brown, Carroll N.; Ion, Theodore P., Persecutions of the Greeks in
Turkey since the Beginning of the European War, Oxford University Press
American Branch, New York, 1918.

15. King, William H., Turkish Atrocities in Asia Minor, United States
Government Printing Office, Washington, 1992.

16. Manchester League of Unredeemed Hellenes, Turkey's crimes:
Hellenism in Turkey, Norbury Natzio & Co., Manchester, 1919.

17. Ward, Mark H., The Deportations in Asia Minor 1921-1922,
Anglo-Hellenic League & British Armenia Committee, London, 1922.

18. Puaux, Rene, La Mort de Smyrne, Edition de la revue des Balkans,
Paris, 1922.

19. Constantine G. Hatzidimitriou; Editor, American Accounts
Documenting the Destruction of Smyrna by the Kemalist Turkish Forces,
September 1922, Aristide D. Caratzas, Publisher, New Rochelle, NY, 2005

20. 14 volumes of documents found in the archives of relevant
countries, compiled by Professor Constantinos Emm. Fotiadis, professor
of History at Aristotelian University in Greece. All volumes focus on
the Pontic Greeks, but also include documents that concern other Asia
Minor Greeks and the Armenians. Volume 13 is entitled: The Genocide of
the Pontus Greeks by the Turks: Archive documents of the Ministries of
Foreign Affairs of Greece, Britain, France, the League of Nations,
S.H.A.T Heodotus, Greece (2004).There is also some commentary and
analysis by Fotiadis. Some volumes are not yet translated into English.

Books in Greek on the Genocide of Greeks

Η αττική γη υποδέχεται τους πρόσφυγες του '22, Ίδρυμα
της Βουλής των
Ελλήνων για τον Κοινοβουλευτισμό και τη Δημοκρατία,
Αθήνα, 2006, ISBN:
9608928419.

Η Έξοδος, Κέντρο Μικρασιατικών Σπουδών, Αθήνα, 1980.

Η Έξοδος (Τόμος Β΄), Κέντρο Μικρασιατικών Σπουδών, Αθήνα
, 1982.

Η Σμύρνη καίγεται, Αθήνα, Ερμής, 1983.

Κοιτίδες Ελληνισμού – Ίμβρος -Τένεδος, Προποντίδα,
Χάλκη, Επτά Ημέρες,
Έκδοση Καθημερινής, Αθήνα, 1996.

Μαύρη Βίβλος Διωγμών και Μαρτυρίων του εν Τουρκιά
Ελληνισμού 1914-1918,
Οικουμενικό Πατριαρχείο, 1919.

Ο Ελληνισμός της Σμύρνης, Ένωσις Σμυρναίων, Αθήνα, 1997.

Ο Ξεριζωμός: η επεκτατική πολιτική της Τουρκίας και οι
διωγμοί των
ελλήνων από τους Τούρκους στον 20ό αιώνα, Ινστιτούτο
Ιστορικών Μελετών,
Αθήνα, 1972.

Αγτζίδης, Βλάσης, Ποντιακός Ελληνισμός - Aπό τη
γενοκτονία και το
σταλινισμό στην περεστρόικα, Εκδοτικός Οίκος Αδελφών
Κυριακίδη,
Θεσσαλονίκη, 1995, ISBN: 9603430005.

Αγτζίδης, Βλάσης, Έλληνες του Πόντου: η γενοκτονία από
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Φωτιάδης, Κωνσταντίνος Ε., Η Γενοκτονία των Ελλήνων του
Πόντου (13ος
τόμος) – Αρχεία Υπουργείου Εξωτερικών Μ.Βρετανίας,
Γαλλίας, Κοινωνίας
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Ασίας και οι
Κρυπτοχριστιανοί του Πόντου, Εκδοτικός Οίκος Αδελφών
Κυριακίδη,
Θεσσαλονίκη, 1988.

Φωτεινός, Νικόλαος, Αναμνήσεις και ιστορήματα από τη
Σμύρνη, Ενώσεως
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Χατσεριάν, Καραμπέτ, Μεταξύ Πυρός, Ξίφους και Θαλάσσης
- Στη Σμύρνη το
1922, Arod Books, Montreal, 2001, ISBN: 0969987943.

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Books and papers on Assyrian Genocide
:
Dr. Gabriele Yonan, transl. Nancy Chaple, The Assyrian Genocide: A
Documentary History, (Princeton: Markus Weiner, 2001) ca.; Original
German title: Ein Vergessener Holocaust: Die Vernichtung der
christlichen Assyrer in der Türkei, (Germany: Göttingen und Wien 1989)

Dr. David Gaunt, Massacres, Resistance, Protectors: Muslim-Christian
Relations in Eastern Anatolia during World War I (Gorgias Press, 2006).

Jean Naayem, "Les Assyro-Chaldeans et les Armeniens Massacres Par les
Turcs", Sebastien de Courtois, Paris, 1920: p.162.

Armenian Refugees (Lord Mayor's Fund). The Plight of Armenian and
Assyrian Christians. London: Spottiswoode, Ballantyne and Co., 1919.

American Committee for Armenian and Syrian [Assyrian] Relief. Armenia,
New York: Amer. Comm. for Armenian/Syrian Relief, 1917; and Armenian
Refugees (Lord Mayor’s Fund).

Papers and Reports::
League of Nations: Council. Protection of Minorities in Turkey. London:
np, 1920.

Abdul-Massih Saadi, Ph.D., From Survival to Revival: In the Aftermath
of the Assyrian Genocide. Ninevah Online:
http://www.nineveh.com/
From%20Survival%20to%20Revival%20In%20the%20Aftermath%20of%20the%20Assyr
ian%20Genocide.html

Panayiotis Diamadis B.A., University of Sydney, The Assyrians in the
Christian Asia Minor Holocaust


Der internationale Anschluß der Akademiker für die Studie von Genoziden erkennt mit ihrer Auflösung den Genozid von Assyrion und Griechen.
Fanis Malkidis
Es ist wirklich unterschiedlicher Moment für den Weltakademiker, wissenschaftlich und erkundigend Gemeinschaft, die Auflösung der Anerkennung des Genozids von [Assyrion] und des Griechen in Abstand 1914-1923, zu dem Auflösung es führte, nachdem sie zwischen ihren Mitgliedern gewählt hatte, der internationale Anschluß der Akademiker für die Studie der Genozide (International Association of Genocide Scholars -IAGS).
Die Auflösung, die das 83% von Stimmen empfing, wird in der Praxis des Ottomanzustandes gegen die christlichen Minoritäten, Armenian, Assyrion (Chaldaion, Nestorianon berichtet, Syrians, Aramaioi, Iakobites, Orthodoxe syrisch), griechisches (Einwohner Ponts, Thraces, Ionon), das führte zu ihren Genozid gegen. In 1997 erkannte der internationale Anschluß der Akademiker für die Studie von Genoziden den Genozid, der armenisch sind und bis jetzt Tätigkeit der Mitglieder des Anschlußes, gezeigt, daß auch bestanden anderen Genoziden als die gleiche Anordnung. Assyrioi, stellte der Grieche ihre gleichen Methoden der Ausrottung, wie Massenimplementierungen, Kurse des Todes und Hunger gegenüber. Das Mitglied des internationalen Anschlußes der Akademiker für die Studie des Genozidprofessors der Universität von Geil Adam Jones stellte die Auflösung und mit Protagonist Thea Halo, Verfasser des Buches „noch meinem Namen“ auf, und gemeinsam mit Wissenschaftlern von der aller Welt, wurde die Auflösung annehmbar und gleichzeitig benannte die Türkei, um die Genozide zu erkennen, die sie festlegte. Die Auflösung erklärt auch, daß „die Ablehnung des Genozids weit als abschließendes Stadium des Genozids erkannt wird, das sich kümmert die um Straffreiheit für die Täter des Genozids und vorbereitet den Boden für die zukünftigen Genozide“.Vor dem Wählen, die umfangreichen verstärkenunterlagen über die Genozide von Assyrion und Griechen, die sie in den Mitgliedern IAGS in den Monaten verteilten und sind im Web site http://www.genocidetext.net/ iags_resolution_ supportingdocumentation.htm vorhanden.
Die überwältigende Unterstützung, die in der Auflösung durch das Führen in der Weltorganisation der Studie von Genoziden gegeben wurde, hilft im Wachstum der Welt Gewissenhaftigkeit für die Genozide von Assyrion und Grieche und es dient auch als wichtiges Werkzeug in der gegenwärtigen Türkei die noch ignoriert oder vollständig die Genozide der christlichen Minoritäten verweigert.
Fanis Malkidis unterrichtet in “Dimokriteio” Universität Thrace und ist regelmäßiges Mitglied des internationalen Anschlußes der Akademiker für die Studie von Genoziden.
DER KOMPLETTE TEXT DER AUFLÖSUNG VON IAGS:
SCHÄTZEND, DASS die Ablehnung des Genozids weit als abschließendes Stadium des Genozids erkannt wird, kümmert sich das um die Straffreiheit für die Täter des Genozids und bereitet die Gegend für die zukünftigen Genozide vor, die
DASS der Genozid gegen die christlichen Bevölkerungen durch den Ottomanzustand an der Dauer SCHÄTZEN und nachdem sein erster Weltkrieg normalerweise als Genozid gegen nur Armenian geschildert ist, mit teilweiser nur Anerkennung der qualitativ ähnlichen Genozide gegen andere christliche Minoritäten des Ottomanreiches, das,
SIE überzeugung des internationalen Anschlußes der Akademiker für die Studie der Genozide, denen die Ottomanexpedition gegen die christlichen Minoritäten des Reiches zwischen 1914 und 1923 einen Genozid gegen Armenian festsetzte, Assyrioys und des Griechen SIND. Der internationale Anschluß der Akademiker für die Studie von Genoziden fragt von der Regierung von der Türkei zwecks, das sie die Genozide gegen diese Bevölkerungen erkennt, zwecks es veröffentlicht eine amtliche Entschuldigung, und zwecks ergreift sie die schnellen.